The Cognition group works within the general approach of cognitive science, which brings the ideas and methods of cognitive psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, philosophy, and computer science to bear on the scientific investigation of mental processes and representations. Group members examine language processing at different levels of organization, ranging from speech perception to sentence-level processing, and they examine issues in conceptual structure and cognitive development. Other areas of investigation include executive control and memory, with examination into lifespan development and factors influencing cognitive and brain health.
Specific Topics Include:
- Phonological competence and interactions with reading ability
- Working memory interactions with structural, conceptual, and discourse knowledge between processing of spoken and written language
- Effects of culture and experience on categorization, reasoning, and conceptual development
- Influence of causal knowledge on categorization, memory, and decision making
- Influence of health factors on brain health, cognition, and academic achievement
State-of-the-art facilities are available for the experimental investigation of a wide range of topics in cognition. The group’s laboratories provide computer-based equipment and facilities for preparing and editing visual and auditory materials, including for speech analysis, eye-tracking, and more for language and cognitive processing studies. Other labs have a neuroimaging tools including MRI/fMRI and EEG/ERP to assess brain structure and function. In addition to laboratory studies, opportunities exist for field research in conceptual structure and reasoning with both children and adults, and in clinical thinking with health care professionals and patients.
Dr. Berent’s research examines the nature of linguistic competence and its origins. Her work seeks to identify the constraints shaping the organization of the language system and determine the extent to which the system is specialized for the processing of linguistic information. Current projects examine speakers’ knowledge of universal phonological constraints on syllable structure. Research in her lab also explores the link between phonological competence and reading ability and disability.
Dr. Coley seeks to answer questions about basic cognitive processes like conceptual organization, reasoning, and conceptual development. How do we organize what we know? How do we use it to make guesses about what we don’t know? How do these processes change with experience? Four themes run through his research. The first, Domain Specificity, is the idea that cognitive processes may differ substantially as a function of what kinds of objects are being thought about. A second theme is that his work tends to take a Comparative Approach, examining how differences in culture and experience impact basic cognitive processes. The third theme stresses the importance of a Developmental Perspective; human cognition is best seen as a dynamic process that is constantly evolving and unfolding over time, rather than a static set of rules or structures. Finally, a stress on Translation means that in addition to doing basic cognitive science, Dr. Coley is interested in the practical, concrete consequences of conceptual organization and reasoning in areas like science education, social conflict, and emotional regulation.
Dr. Hillman’s research investigates the relationship between physical activity and other health factors (e.g., fitness, adiposity, diet, hydration) on cognitive and brain health during childhood and across the lifespan. Health behaviors during childhood often track throughout life and have implications for later life health and disease (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes). However, absent from public health concerns is the relationship between physical inactivity and other health factors on cognitive health in children. Dr. Hillman’s research has found that both acute and chronic participation in physical activity promotes more effective cognitive and brain function, and increased adiposity may reduce cognitive and brain function, especially when challenged with tasks that require greater amounts of executive control. Accordingly, Dr. Hillman uses a translational approach to study basic aspects of cognition and brain in the laboratory and applied aspects of cognition in schools through changes in academic achievement.
Dr. Hutchinson’s lab investigates the bidirectional relationship between attention and memory in humans. That is, he aims to better understand how selective attention operates upon episodic memories, as well as how memory retrieval can influence what we attend to in our ongoing perceptual environment. He uses both behavioral (e.g., psychophysics) and neuroimaging (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI) techniques to better understand when and where these aspects of cognition interact as well as articulate how they are implemented by the brain.
Dr. Kim studies causal and conceptual thinking, reasoning, and decision-making. Her lab group asks how people’s prior background knowledge and beliefs influence the judgments and assumptions they make about new people and situations. In a substantial subset of her work, she attempts to concurrently address basic issues in cognitive science and applied issues in clinical science and practice. From the perspective of cognitive science, her research addresses how causal and explanatory beliefs are mentally represented and organized, and how this representation affects basic cognitive processes such as categorization, memory, judgments, and decision-making. From the perspective of clinical science, she simultaneously examines how people’s prior knowledge, beliefs, and expectations influence the assessment and diagnosis of medical and mental illness, memory for patients’ symptoms and medical information, judgments of psychological abnormality, decisions about treatment, and prejudice toward and stigmatization of patients.
Specialization: Cognitive and Brain Health and Plasticity, Human Factors, Development and Aging
Laboratory: Cognitive and Brain Health Laboratory
A major focus of Art’s recent research is the understanding and enhancement of cognitive and neural plasticity across the lifespan. This research has included the effects of chronic and acute programs of exercise and physical activity on changes in cognition and brain structure/function from childhood through old age, including with a variety of different patient groups. Art’s research has also focused on designing and exploring the effects of cognitive training, both formal and informal, on cognitive and brain function. Other factors that we have studied include nutrition and non-invasive brain stimulation. In another line of research Art, his colleagues and students have examined distraction and multi-tasking in the wild, such as driving and street crossing in high fidelity simulators and immersive virtual reality environments.
Professor Marsella’s multidisciplinary research is grounded in the computational modeling of human cognition, emotion and social behavior as well as the evaluation of those models. Beyond its relevance to understanding human behavior, the work has seen numerous applications, including health interventions, social skills training and planning operations. His more applied work includes frameworks for large-scale social simulations of towns and a range of techniques and tools for creating virtual humans, facsimiles of people that can engage people in face-to-face interactions.
Specialization: Speech Perception, Lexical Access
Dr. Miller’s research, which lies at the interface of cognitive psychology, linguistics, and speech and hearing science, has focused on how human listeners recognize spoken words. Previous research in the field has shown that the acoustic form of any given word is not constant from utterance to utterance, but changes as a function of such factors as the specific talker who is speaking, the rate of speech, and the context in which the word is produced. Despite such variability, human listeners recognize spoken words with remarkable ease. Over the years, Dr. Miller and her research team have used a variety of experimental paradigms to investigate the perceptual processes that underlie this ability. The results of such investigations constrain theories of normal speech and language processing as well as theories of speech and language disorders, and have implications for the development of human speech technologies.
Dr. Pearlmutter is interested in sentence comprehension and sentence generation processes, including ambiguity resolution, the use of grammatical constraints and the interaction and timing of use of constraints derived from working memory, real-world knowledge, grammatical knowledge, and frequency information. The goal is to understand both how the meanings of individual words are combined by comprehenders to create the meanings of whole sentences (sentence comprehension), and how sentences are created given a meaning that a speaker has in mind to convey (sentence generation). In investigating these questions, Dr. Pearlmutter uses various methodologies including word-by-word reading, eyetracking, functional neuroimaging (event-related potential recording and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging), computational modeling, and examination of large text corpora. Some of his current research examines whether comprehenders can consider multiple possible interpretations of a sentence simultaneously, how individual differences in working memory impact sentence understanding, the relationship between the different meanings of a word and its different grammatical possibilities, and the degree to which the intended meaning of different phrases determines the nature of sentence planning processes.